Wars in the 19th Century were accompanied by a very heavy loss of life from infectious diseases. Typhus fever, dysentery, malaria, typhoid fever and yellow fever caused many more deaths than wounds inflicted by enemy actions. During the Peninsular War, for example, for every soldier dying of a wound, four succumbed to disease. This book examines the development and evolution of surgical practice against this overwhelming risk of death due to disease. It reviews three major conflicts during this time: the Peninsular War, the Crimean War and the Boer War and also considers many minor wars fought by the British Empire in the intervening years, and highlights significant medical and surgical developments during these conflicts. War surgery in the first part of the 19th Century was brutal, and it had to be carried out swiftly. It was performed at speed because there were no anaesthetics and the wounded often died during the procedure. Surgeons focussed their attention on wounds of the arms and legs, because limbs were both easily accessible to the surgeon (unlike organs inside the abdomen and chest) and lent themselves well to amputation. This was commonly the operation of choice for many war wounds of arms and legs. Some surgeons performed more difficult surgical procedures to try to preserve the limbs and attempted to repair damaged tissues, but these operations took longer and caused greater suffering to the patient. Abdominal and chest wounds were not treated since surgeons did not have the means, the ability, or the understanding, to cut into the abdomen and chest to repair the damaged organs successfully. An important development which contributed to surgery moving forwards was the discovery of general anaesthesia, which became available in time for the Crimean War. However, whilst it certainly rendered operations pain-free, it was associated with significant numbers of deaths during surgery on wounded soldiers because of the poorly understood effects that anaesthetics had, particularly on the heart. As a result, operative surgery did not extend its scope a great deal, and military surgery remained focussed on surgery of the limbs. However, fewer amputations were performed during the Boer War at the end of this period. Britain sent observers to several wars in which it was not involved to learn military lessons and to understand the medical and surgical aspects of war. The American Civil War and the Franco-Prussian War were two such conflicts. The Russo-Japanese War resulted in a very significant advance in surgery for abdominal wounds, but Western observers either failed to notice or ignored pioneering work performed by a Russian female surgeon called Vera Gedroits. As a result, when the Great War began in 1914, lessons had to be re-learned by British surgeons, and many soldiers who suffered penetrating abdominal wounds lost their lives when they should have survived. Unfortunately, one of the hallmarks of war surgery is that successive generations of surgeons make the same mistakes as their forebears and the same lessons have to be learned time and again.
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In the dark years of apartheid, a boy grew up in a household with a terrible secret: although they were all of mixed origins, they had managed to `pass as white'. Young Winston Wicomb, however, was far too dark to fit in, and had to be hidden whenever someone knocked on their door. After struggling through school and even managing to obtain an university degree, he still remained unemployed due to his skin colour. To make ends meet, he serviced cars in their backyard, but never stopped dreaming about escaping the restraints of Apartheid. Then fate intervened. While distributing pamphlets advertising his mechanical skills, he found Professor Chris Barnard stranded next to the road. He offered to help even though he had no experience with the new Mercedes the professor drove. Barnard, surprised at the success of Winston's efforts and impulsive as ever, offered Winston a job in his research lab. It is here that Winston applied his knowledge and experience of matters mechanical to eventually produce the world's first apparatus to transport a living heart over long distances. `Vital Remains' tells to story of an unlikely hero, a huge risk, achievement ... and love.
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An intimate and compelling exploration into the unique psyche of the heart surgeon, by one of the profession's most eminent figures. Although Professor Stephen Westaby was born with the necessary coordination and manual dexterity, it was a head trauma sustained during university that gifted him the qualities of an exceptional heart surgeon: qualities that are frequently associated with psychopathy. His thirty-five-year career has been characterised by fearlessness and ruthless ambition; leaving empathy at the hospital door as thousands of patients put their lives in his hands. For heart surgeons, the inevitable cost of failure is death and in The Knife's Edge, Westaby reflects on the unique mindset of those who are drawn to this exhilarating and often tragic profession. We discover the pioneers who grasped opportunities and took chances to drive innovation and save lives. Often difficult, uninhibited and fearless, theirs is a field constantly threatened by the risk of public failure. Like those before him, Westaby refuses to draw the line in his search of a lifetime solution to problems of the heart. His determination is unerring - a steadfastness underpinned by his unusual mind. But as we glimpse into the future of cardiac surgery, for all its remarkable scientific advancement, one question remains: within the confines of socialised medical healthcare systems, how can heart surgeons - individuals often hardwired with avoidance of self-doubt, a penchant for glory and a flagrant disregard for authority - truly flourish?
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The nineteenth century saw a complete transformation of the practice and reputation of surgery. Crucial Interventions follows its increasingly optimistic evolution, drawing from the very best examples of rare surgical textbooks with a focus on the extraordinary visual materials of the mid-nineteenth century. Unnerving and graphic, yet beautifully rendered, these fascinating illustrations include step-by-step surgical techniques paired with medical instruments and painted depictions of operations in progress. Arranged for the layman from head to toe, and accompanied by an authoritative, eloquent and inspiring narrative from medical historian Richard Barnett, author of 2014 bestseller The Sick Rose, Crucial Interventions is a unique and captivating book on one of the world's most mysterious and macabre professions, and promises to be another success.
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Nearly all of us will, at some point, know someone who was born with a heart defect. But, as the surgical scars so often remain hidden, we just might not realise it.; Powerfully telling of the patients and their experiences, Open Hearts is a remarkable medical story: we are often so focused on 'extraordinary' people and their achievements, we forget just how incredible the 'ordinary' achievements of living can be.; Until the 1960s 'blue babies' were a striking sight in our streets. Suffering from congenital heart disease offered a bleak outlook to young patients and a heartbreaking experience for parents. Very few would make it to adulthood; now, in the West at least, most have a much higher chance of survival.; In Open Hearts Kate Bull, formerly a cardiologist at Great Ormond Street Hospital, tells not just of the development of heart surgery in children, but of the patients, past and present, whose lives have been transformed. Besides the technology, the sociology of medicine has changed substantially since the 1950s - think of the atmosphere of children's wards.Other things have barely changed - consider the dread of kissing your child goodbye at the door of an operating theatre in any era. ; Children's heart surgery is often seen as a medical triumph; but, for all the successful operations completed, thousands of pioneering patients have gone before, perhaps facing their own uncertain futures. Today, we place great hope in the power of science. Many lives have been saved; but, sometimes, we ask medicine to do more than it can.; By turns frightening, heart-wrenching and inspiring, Open Hearts is a powerful story of medical progress, hope and survival.
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The struggle to perform well is universal, but nowhere is this drive to do better more important than in medicine. In his new book, Atul Gawande explores how doctors strive to close the gap between best intentions and best performance in the face of obstacles that sometimes seem insurmountable. His vivid stories take us to battlefield surgical tents in Iraq, to a polio outbreak in India and to malpractice courtrooms around the country. He discusses the ethical dilemmas of doctors' participation in lethal injections, examines the influence of money on modern medicine and recounts the astoundingly contentious history of hand-washing. Finally, he gives a brutally honest insight into life as a practising surgeon. Unflinching but compassionate, Gawande's investigation into medical professionals and their progression from good to great provides a detailed blueprint for success that can be used by everyone.
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DAILY MAIL, GUARDIAN AND OBSERVER BOOKS OF THE YEAR 2017 Winner of the 2018 PEN/E.O. Wilson Prize for Literary Science Writing Shortlisted for the 2018 Wellcome Book Prize Shortlisted for the 2018 Wolfson Prize The story of a visionary British surgeon whose quest to unite science and medicine delivered us into the modern world - the safest time to be alive in human history In The Butchering Art, historian Lindsey Fitzharris recreates a critical turning point in the history of medicine, when Joseph Lister transformed surgery from a brutal, harrowing practice to the safe, vaunted profession we know today. Victorian operating theatres were known as 'gateways of death', Fitzharris reminds us, since half of those who underwent surgery didn't survive the experience. This was an era when a broken leg could lead to amputation, when surgeons often lacked university degrees, and were still known to ransack cemeteries to find cadavers. While the discovery of anaesthesia somewhat lessened the misery for patients, ironically it led to more deaths, as surgeons took greater risks. In squalid, overcrowded hospitals, doctors remained baffled by the persistent infections that kept mortality rates stubbornly high. At a time when surgery couldn't have been more dangerous, an unlikely figure stepped forward: Joseph Lister, a young, melancholy Quaker surgeon. By making the audacious claim that germs were the source of all infection - and could be treated with antiseptics - he changed the history of medicine forever. With a novelist's eye for detail, Fitzharris brilliantly conjures up the grisly world of Victorian surgery, revealing how one of Britain's greatest medical minds finally brought centuries of savagery, sawing and gangrene to an end.
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'This is history with a surgeon's touch: deft, incisive and sometimes excruciatingly bloody' The Sunday Times 'Utterly eccentric and riveting' Mail on Sunday 'Eye-opening and, frequently, eye-watering . . . a book that invites readers to peer up the bottoms of kings, into the souls of rock stars and down the ear canals of astronauts' The Daily Telegraph How did a decision made in the operating theatre spark hundreds of conspiracy theories about JFK? How did a backstage joke prove fatal to world-famous escape artist Harry Houdini? How did Queen Victoria change the course of surgical history? Through dark centuries of bloodletting and of amputations without anaesthetic to today's sterile, high-tech operating theatres, surgeon Arnold van de Laar uses his experience and expertise to tell an incisive history of the past, present and future of surgery. From the dark centuries of bloodletting and of amputations without anaesthetic to today's sterile, high-tech operating theatres, Under the Knife is both a rich cultural history, and a modern anatomy class for us all.
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What do anaesthetists do? How does anaesthesia work? What are the risks? And how does the anaesthetist know if you are really asleep? Anaesthesia is a mysterious and sometimes threatening process. In this Very Short Introduction, Aidan O'Donnell takes the reader on a tour through the whole of the modern anaesthetic practice. He begins by explaining general anaesthesia: what it is, how it is produced, and how it differs from natural sleep and other forms of unconsciousness. He goes on to consider the main categories of anaesthetic drugs, including anaesthetic vapours, intravenous agents, muscle relaxants, and analgesics, together with explanations of how they work and what their purpose is. Set against the historical background of anaesthetic and surgical practice, O'Donnell examines the large role anaesthetists play in specialised areas such as intensive care medicine, pain medicine, and childbirth; and finally, he considers the risks of anaesthesia, putting in to context that anaesthesia is a very safe process.
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How does it feel to hold someone's life in your hands? What is it like to cut into someone else's body? What is it like to stand by, powerless, while someone dies because of the incompetence of your seniors? How do you tell a beautiful young man who seems perfectly fit that he has only a few days left to live? Gabriel Weston worked in the big-city hospitals of the twenty-first century; a woman in a world dominated by Alpha males. Her world was one of disease, suffering and extraordinary pressure where a certain moral ambiguity and clinical detachment were necessary tools for survival. Startling and honest, her account combines a fierce sense of human dignity with compassion and insight, illuminating scenes of life and death the rest of us rarely glimpse.
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This is a stunningly well-written account of the life of a surgeon: what it is like to cut into people's bodies and the terrifying - literally life and death - decisions that have to be made.There are accounts of operations that go wrong; of doctors who go to the bad; why autopsies are necessary; what it feels like to insert your knife into someone.
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SHORTLISTED FOR THE COSTA BIOGRAPHY PRIZE THE SUNDAY TIMES NO.2 BESTSELLER WINNER OF THE BMA PRESIDENT'S AWARD 2017 An incredible memoir from one of the world's most eminent heart surgeons, recalling some of the most remarkable and poignant cases he's worked on. Grim Reaper sits on the heart surgeon's shoulder. A slip of the hand and life ebbs away. The balance between life and death is so delicate, and the heart surgeon walks that rope between the two. In the operating room there is no time for doubt. It is flesh, blood, rib-retractors and pumping the vital organ with your bare hand to squeeze the life back into it. An off-day can have dire consequences - this job has a steep learning curve, and the cost is measured in human life. Cardiac surgery is not for the faint of heart. Professor Stephen Westaby took chances and pushed the boundaries of heart surgery. He saved hundreds of lives over the course of a thirty-five year career and now, in his astounding memoir, Westaby details some of his most remarkable and poignant cases - such as the baby who had suffered multiple heart attacks by six months old, a woman who lived the nightmare of locked-in syndrome, and a man whose life was powered by a battery for eight years. A powerful, important and incredibly moving book, Fragile Lives offers an exceptional insight into the exhilarating and sometimes tragic world of heart surgery, and how it feels to hold someone's life in your hands.
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A tearaway young man from Norfolk, Astley Cooper (1768-1841) became the world's richest and most famous surgeon. Admired from afar by the Brontes and up close by his student Keats, his success was born of an appetite for bloody revolutions. He set up an international network of bodysnatchers, won the Royal Society's highest prize and boasted to Parliament that there was no one whose body he could not steal. Experimenting on his neighbours' corpses and the living bodies of their stolen pets, his discoveries were as great as his infamy. Caught up in the French Revolution, and in attempts to bring radical democracy to Britain, Cooper nevertheless rose to become surgeon to royals from the Prince Regent to Queen Victoria. Setting the past against his own reactions to autopsies and operations, hospitals and poetry, Burch's "Digging Up the Dead" is a riveting account of a world of gothic horror as well as fertile idealism.
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Authored by three world experts, this is a clinically focused book on pediatric anesthesia. "The Manual", as it is known, has long dominated the market for a succinct and practical resource on administering anesthesia to children and is used by residents, general anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists, and pediatric anesthesiologists. This new edition retains the basic structure of the book and is updated throughout. Text-heavy in the current edition, the Seventh Edition features the addition of figures to chapters where they are especially helpful (eg, the chapter on cardiovascular surgery and cardiac procedures) and makes greater use of headings to break up the text and guide reading. From reviews of the Sixth Edition:"This is an extremely well written book that I would recommend highly to anyone involved in anaesthetizing children. It is comprehensive enough to provide an excellent reference for trainees and general anaesthetists who occasionally deal with paediatric cases, while at the same time giving valuable supplemental information for paediatric anaesthetists encountering an unusual procedure or condition. In short, this is a book that would make a welcome addition to any anaesthetist's mobile library." --Anaesthesia
One of the horrors of the West African Ebola outbreak was the decimation of the area's already thin ranks of surgeons. As Ebola spread, health facilities closed, and some doctors-afraid of catching the disease-left the region or stopped performing surgery. Many of those who stayed contracted Ebola and died. As the pool of doctors available-and willing-to perform surgery dwindled, treatable conditions unrelated to the disease, including appendicitis, unrepaired hernias, stomach ulcers, and obstructed labor, went untreated with devastating results. Drs. Sherry M. Wren and Adam L. Kushner both worked extensively with surgeons in Ebola-ravaged countries during the 2014 outbreak. Recognizing that there was no guidance available for how to perform surgery under such dangerous conditions, Wren and Kushner collaborated to create official guidelines for safe surgical procedures in cases of confirmed or suspected Ebola. Operation Ebola documents these procedures and describes in vivid detail the conditions that faced both local surgeons and the international surgeons who came to help. Bringing together a group of medical experts from Sierra Leone and across the globe to tell their stories and offer hard-learned lessons, this book is a riveting first-hand account of performing surgery in under-resourced parts of the world. Through these health workers' eyes, readers will come to understand what it feels like to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while operating, what dangers remain when using PPE, how to construct an Ebola maternity ward, and how to give anesthesia to patients during a time of Ebola. A succinct and gripping exploration of how an outbreak can affect surgical care and the surgeons who provide it, this book will interest medical professionals, students, policy makers, donors, and anyone who cares about Ebola or global health. Contributors: Kathryn P. Barron, Hakon A. Bolkan, Severine Caluwaerts, Joseph Forrester, Andrew M. R. Hall, Eva Hancilles, Mark J. Harris, Angela Hewlett, David B. Hoyt, Daniel W. Johnson, Thaim B. Kamara, Songor S. J. Koedoyoma, Michael Koroma, Adam L. Kushner, Marta Lado, Ronald C. Marsh, Andrew J. Michaels, Mohamed G. Sheku, Sherry M. Wren
Surgical care is increasingly recognized as a critical component of global health, and strong surgical skills, teamwork, and poise under pressure become even more imperative during conflict or disaster. When faced with hospital bombings or devastating earthquakes, healthcare personnel must develop special techniques and abilities to ably care for patients despite limited resources and a disrupted health system. In Operation Crisis, Dr. Adam L. Kushner brings together 22 medical experts from around the world to recount their experiences in the field when disaster struck. These candid firsthand accounts from both local and international aid surgeons provide clinicians and public health practitioners with insightful lessons for effectively treating surgical patients under the most grueling of circumstances.Moving from conflict settings that include war zones in Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Syria, and South Sudan, Operation Crisis also touches on post-earthquake Haiti and Nepal and post-tsunami Indonesia. Individual themed chapters cover mass casualty training, burn care, obstetric care, sexual violence, and landmine injuries. Combining personal stories with lessons learned and possible interventions, these vivid and affecting essays detail the immediate aftermath of conflict and disaster while pointing the way to improving care for future victims of crisis.Intended to spark further discussion and function as an advocacy tool while highlighting situations where surgical care can save lives and reduce disability, this book is a valuable resource for medical professionals, students, policy makers, international aid organizations, and philanthropic donors.Contributors: Kapendra Shekhar Amatya, Samer Attar, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Lucas C. Carlson, James C. Cobey, Dattesh R. Dave, Dan L. Deckelbaum, Richard A. Gosselin, Shailvi Gupta, Edna Adan Ismail, Thaim B. Kamara, T. Peter Kingham, Adam L. Kushner, Judy M. Lee, Maria "Tane" Pilar Luna, Brijesh Mishra, Kyle N. Remick, Lauri J. Romanzi, Michael Sinclair, Barclay T. Stewart, Marten van Wijhe, Evan G. Wong
All surgeons want to be better surgeons...They work hard to be respected by their peers, appreciated by their patients, and valued by their communities. Most of the estimated 200 million surgeries performed worldwide every year go as anticipated, with positive patient outcomes. However, the number of surgical complications and preventable medical errors still remains unacceptably high. Why are experienced surgeons still creating so many adverse events? More importantly, what can surgeons do to better address the situation? This book seeks to answer these questions. The book provides pragmatic examples on how good surgeons can grow from being technically brilliant to becoming empathetic and capable of providing safe, compassionate, and more effective patient care. The book follows trauma surgeon Philip Stahel's 20-year journey from his 'rookie years' in internship and residency, to his development as a global patient safety advocate, renowned academician and teacher, and compassionate surgeon. The book touches on why our current patient safety protocols and checklists fail to keep patients safe and how a physician-driven initiative with credible leadership is needed to build a sustainable 'culture of patient safety'. Written for a wide audience and based on the paradigm that "good judgment comes from experience which comes from poor judgment", the book provides in-depth coverage of all the critical and timely components of safe surgical care, relates practical tips for improving the quality of partnerships between surgeons and patients, and offers a practical guide on how to reduce the learning curve to becoming a better surgeon.
This book covers a broad range of topics, providing trainee and practising anaesthetists with a comprehensive source of knowledge on applied sciences and clinical anaesthesia. The book has been divided into six sections with various chapters serving as a synopsis of the practice of anaesthesia. Each chapter discusses the significance and importance of problems that can impact the peri-operative management of the surgical patient. The case scenarios at the end of each chapter will additionally help in understanding the practical relevance of basic science. This book will be an invaluable educational resource for trainee anaesthetists and an indispensable aide-memoire for practising anaesthetists. It is, therefore, essential study material for trainees and a great educational tool for trainers. Medical students and junior doctors, who are about to embark on a career in anaesthesia or intensive care medicine, will also find the book to be a useful companion.
This, the 4th edition of Schein's Common Sense Emergency Abdominal Surgery, builds on the reputation of the three previous editions. Already a worldwide benchmark, translated into half a dozen languages, this book guides surgical trainees logically through the minefields of assessment and management of acute surgical abdominal conditions. General surgery as a concept may have been overtaken in many parts of the world by the development of niche specialties, but the need for a cohort of generalists able to deal competently with common surgical emergencies has not gone away. If you recognise this need then this is the book for you! Tyro surgeons and experienced practitioners alike will benefit from the distilled wisdom contained in these pages. The direct, no nonsense, writing style, supported by entertaining cartoons, gives clear guidance while at the same time providing amusing insights into our collective surgical psyche. NOT a standard textbook. Buy it! You will not regret it. Some new editors and authors enhance the new edition. Almost all chapters have been revised to take account of new concepts and modern developments. New chapters have been added and some completely rewritten often with a new emphasis on the importance of a laparoscopic approach.'
Following on from the success of the international best-seller "Key Questions in Cardiac Surgery", the long-awaited "Key Questions in Thoracic Surgery" will be the next book in the Key Questions series to be released. This book will systematically cover all the main topics involved in the current practice of a thoracic surgeon. It will incorporate current guidelines for practice (such as from the American College of Chest Physicians, British Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society) and up-to-date information based on current literature. Each chapter will be structured to include aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, indications for surgery, perioperative management, surgical options and postoperative care. Possible complications will be discussed and the results of current practice presented. Importantly, there will be a section on basic sciences related to the practising thoracic surgeon and a further section on thoracic investigations with many images illustrating the variety of pathologies. Each chapter will also contain important references for further reading and greater depth of knowledge. The data and body of knowledge presented in this book is strictly evidence-based and is relevant to all thoracic surgical trainees, at any stage of their training programme. It will provide residents, fellows and specialist registrars the necessary information to carry out their daily duties. Respiratory physicians and thoracic intensive care unit specialists will also find the book useful in terms of the indications and surgical management of these patients, as they are integral to the thoracic surgical process. Another important group is the nursing staff, physiotherapists and other professions allied to medicine working with patients with adult thoracic disease either pre-operatively or post-operatively, as it will help to give a detailed understanding of the principles surrounding thoracic surgical disease. Most importantly, the book is ideal as a revision aid for residents/registrars undertaking their Cardiothoracic Surgery Board examinations around the world. Although these examinations vary in format in different countries, this book is applicable to all cardiothoracic surgical trainees. Its concise, yet complete coverage of the important topics, make it the ideal guide to answer the key questions in thoracic surgery that are asked within the confines of an examination.
Evgeniy Perelygin -- a surgeon who is known to his friends as Perya -- has managed to capture the funny, the amusing, and the ridiculous aspects of what surgeons do and think. Yes, surgeons take their profession very seriously and their patients even more so. But, what is true in any aspect of human life is also true for surgery -- there is always something to laugh about, or even ridicule. And this includes, above all, surgeons themselves! In each of these cartoons lurks the kernel of a basic surgical truth. This truth has been blown up, distorted, and exaggerated, but remains at the heart of the picture. Each picture has a legend describing the situation, which is followed by an aphorism, quote, or comment. This book is essentially for surgical eyes -- they are all cutting edge, and will have the reader in stitches. Readers may also wish to use the images to enliven PowerPoint lectures!
This book will systematically cover all the main topics involved in the current practice of a cardiac surgeon. It will incorporate current guidelines for practice (such as from the American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology) and up-to-date information based on current literature. All the chapters have been written by cardiac surgeons who have recently undertaken their Cardiothoracic Board / Specialty Exit examinations and reviewed by a cardiothoracic examiner of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Each chapter will be structured to include aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, indications for surgery, peri-operative management, surgical options and postoperative care. Possible complications will be discussed and the results of current practice presented. Importantly there will be a section on basic sciences related to the practising cardiac surgeon and a further section on cardiac investigations with many images illustrating the variety of pathologies. Each chapter will also contain important references for further reading and greater depth of knowledge. The data and body of knowledge presented in this book is strictly evidence-based and is relevant to all cardiac surgical trainees, at any stage of their training programme. It will provide interns, residents and specialist registrars the necessary information to carry out their daily duties. Adult cardiologists and cardiothoracic intensive care unit specialists will also find the book useful in terms of the indications and surgical management of these patients, as they are integral to the cardiac surgical process. Another important group is the nursing staff, physiotherapists and other professions allied to medicine, both surgical and cardiological, working with patients with adult cardiac disease either pre-operatively or postoperatively, as it will help to give a detailed understanding of the principles surrounding adult cardiac surgical disease. Most importantly, the book is ideal as a revision aid for residents/registrars undertaking their Cardiothoracic Surgery Board examinations around the world. Although these examinations vary in format in different countries, this book is applicable to all cardiothoracic surgical trainees. Its concise, yet complete coverage of the important topics, make it the ideal guide to answer the key questions in cardiac surgery that are asked within the confines of an examination.
Since its publication, about four years ago, the best-seller, "Aphorisms & Quotations for the Surgeon", has found its place in surgeons' personal and public libraries. Surgeons are using the book to 'decorate' their lectures or manuscripts with relevant smart or entertaining entries; some like to quote from the book during teaching rounds or conferences; many simply enjoy it for its collective and eternal surgical wisdom and wit. This book brings an additional medley of aphorisms and quotations for surgeons, sent in by surgeons or retrieved from multiple sources to serve as a companion to the first volume. It is hoped that readers, especially the younger surgeons, will discover that surgical truth is old, that what they think is a novel idea has been said before, and that what they observe around them -- has been observed years ago. It may contribute to their humanity and humility, perhaps even add maturity to their surgical personality and practice, and with a bit of luck, increase their sense of surgical humour -- which in the era of political correctness has tended to dry up.
The single best answer format of questions is invaluable in assessing a trainee's clinical skills and problem-solving abilities. It allows the trainee to demonstrate application of their knowledge to clinical practice. This book comprises six sets of practice papers. Each set contains 30 single best answer questions which cover topics including clinical anaesthesia, pain and intensive care. The questions are based on the recent changes introduced to the written part of the final FRCA examination. The best possible answer to a given clinical scenario is substantiated by a detailed explanation drawn from recent review articles and textbooks in clinical anaesthesia. These questions will enable candidates to assess their clinical knowledge and skills in problem-solving, data interpretation and decision making. This book is essential study material for candidates sitting postgraduate examinations in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine. It is not only an essential guide for trainees but also an invaluable educational resource for all anaesthetists.