History of Medicine Books

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    Arthur Conan Doyle once described the influence of cocaine as "so transcendently stimulating and clarifying to the mind..." It is perhaps for this reason the drug remains just as enrapturing as it was upon its discovery in the mid-nineteenth century. The "magical elixir," strangely, was once seen as a substance with incredible medicinal value. Indeed, even the famed Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud sung the drugs praises as a miracle worker. Regardless of its various reputations, cocaine's story remains captivating. This book attempts to cover the who, what, when, where, why, and hows of cocaine: its origin, its legacy, and why its history is so addictive.
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    Faces from the Front examines the British response to the huge number of soldiers who incurred facial injuries during the First World War. These injuries were produced within a short time span, but (for the first time in a major conflict) did not necessarily lead to death due to developments in anaesthesia and improvements in the treatment of infection and blood loss. Casualties were evacuated back to England, where surgeons had an opportunity to develop their skills on a large patient caseload. Harold Gillies, an ambitious young surgeon, developed a new branch of surgery: plastic surgery of the face. In 1915, Gillies set up a dedicated ward for patients with facial injuries at the Cambridge Military Hospital in Aldershot, Hampshire. Following the Battle of the Somme and the escalation in the number of casualties with facial injuries, steps were taken to establish a new hospital entirely focused on the treatment of facial injuries at Sidcup in South-East London. The Queen's Hospital treated more than 5,000 patients between its opening in August 1917 and the mid-1920s; its work was mainly funded by charitable donations. The book uncovers the history of this hospital by analysing a wide range of sources - including numerous photographs and paintings - which detail the experiences of patients and staff. A team of surgeons and other specialised staff were brought together at Sidcup who, like the hospital's patients, came from Britain, New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the US. The book argues that the development and refinement of new surgical techniques was helped by a multi-disciplinary approach. Detailed patient records - combined with notes, photographs and paintings - were used to evaluate the efficacy of experimental procedures and to educate new surgeons. Treatment often involved multiple operations and took place over long periods of time, and considerable thought was given to the recovery and rehabilitation of patients. The Queen's Hospital had two important legacies: first, it played a pivotal role in the development of modern medical practice by paving the way for a new surgical specialty - plastic surgery - and by showcasing the benefits of specialist hospitals and multi-disciplinary services; second, the reconstruction of damaged faces had a major impact on the patients themselves. Drawing on a unique collection of personal and family accounts of the post-war lives of patients treated at Sidcup, the author explores surgical and aesthetic outcomes and the emotional impact of facial reconstruction.
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    This hugely ambitious volume, worldwide in scope and ranging from antiquity to the present, examines the human encounter with Unreason in all its manifestations, the challenges it poses to society and our responses to it. In twelve chapters organized chronologically from the Bible to Freud, from exorcism to mesmerism, from Bedlam to Victorian asylums, from the theory of humours to modern pharmacology, Andrew Scull writes compellingly about madness, its meanings, its consequences and our various attempts to understand and treat it.
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    French biologist and chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) transformed medicine-and the lives of people around the world-when he developed the first rabies vaccine in 1885. Two years later, he founded the Institut Pasteur to fight infectious diseases-tuberculosis, hepatitis, tetanus, plague, influenza, and many more. For 130 years, this international organization has been at the forefront of revolutionary discoveries that have contributed enormously to major advances in medicine, in particular the isolation of HIV in 1983. With 33research units in Paris, 33 Institutes throughout the world, and 10 Nobel Prizes, the Institute has truly changed the world. This detailed, illustrated, and fully documented book sheds light on the activities and battles the Institute has led throughout its history, and its plans for the future.
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    This title looks at 250 of the most important moments in the development of pharmaceuticals. Illustrated entries feature ancient drugs, vaccines, cures and controversial medical treatments. It shines a light on the scientists, doctors and companies who brought the drugs to us. Throughout history, humans everywhere have searched for remedies to heal our bodies and minds. Covering everything from ancient herbs to cutting-edge chemicals, this book in the hugely popular Milestones series looks at 250 of the most important moments in the development of life-altering, life-saving and sometimes life-endangering pharmaceuticals. Illustrated entries feature ancient drugs like alcohol, opium and hemlock; the smallpox and the polio vaccines; homeopathic cures; and controversial medical treatments like ether, amphetamines and Xanax - while shining a light on the scientists, doctors and companies who brought them to us.
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    'Lucy Inglis has done a wonderful job bringing together a wide range of sources to tell the history of the most exciting and dangerous plants in the world. Telling the story of opium tells us much about our faults and foibles as humans - our willingness to experiment; our ability to become addicts; our pursuit of money. This book tells us more than about opium; it tells us about ourselves.' - Peter Frankopan, author of The Silk Roads `The only thing that is good is poppies. They are gold.' Poppy tears, opium, heroin, fentanyl: humankind has been in thrall to the `Milk of Paradise' for millennia. The latex of papaver somniferum is a bringer of sleep, of pleasurable lethargy, of relief from pain - and hugely addictive. A commodity without rival, it is renewable, easy to extract, transport and refine, and subject to an insatiable global demand. No other substance in the world is as simple to produce or as profitable. It is the basis of a gargantuan industry built upon a shady underworld, but ultimately it is a farm-gate material that lives many lives before it reaches the branded blister packet, the intravenous drip or the scorched and filthy spoon. Many of us will end our lives dependent on it. In Milk of Paradise, acclaimed cultural historian Lucy Inglis takes readers on an epic journey from ancient Mesopotamia to modern America and Afghanistan, from Sanskrit to pop, from poppy tears to smack, from morphine to today's synthetic opiates. It is a tale of addiction, trade, crime, sex, war, literature, medicine and, above all, money. And, as this ambitious, wide-ranging and compelling account vividly shows, the history of opium is our history and it speaks to us of who we are.
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    Our bodies are not fixed; they change over time. They vary with alterations in diet, exercise and illness, and shift as we age. Our attitudes to bodies, and especially to posture - how people hold themselves, how they move - are also fluid. Our stance and gait are interpreted as healthy or ill, able or disabled, elegant or slovenly, beautiful or ugly. In Stand Up Straight!: A History of Posture Sander L. Gilman probes these shifting concepts of posture to show how society views who we are and what we are able to do by how our bodies appear. From Neanderthal man to modern humans, Gilman shows how we have used our understanding of posture to define who we are - and who we are not. The book traverses theology and anthropology, medicine and politics, and ranges from discarded ideas of race to the most modern ideas of disability, and from theories of dance to concepts of national identity. Interweaving the history of posture with our developing knowledge of anatomy and cultural history, and fully illustrated with an array of striking images, Stand Up Straight! is the first comprehensive history of the upright body at rest and in movement.
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    His family survived famine-ravaged Ireland in the 1850s. His ancestors settled in poverty-rife Victorian Liverpool, working to survive and thrive. Some of them became soldiers serving in Gallipoli and on the Western Front. One would be the last man to step off the SS Titanic as it sank beneath the icy waves. He would testify at the inquest. This is their story. Stephen McGann is Doctor Turner in the BBC hit-drama series Call the Midwife. Flesh and Blood is the story of the McGann family as told through seven maladies - diseases, wounds or ailments that have afflicted Stephen's relatives over the last century and a half, and which have helped mould him into what he now perceives himself to be. It's the story of how health, or the lack of it, fuels our collective will and informs our personal narrative. Health is the motivational antagonist in the drama of our life story - circumscribing the extent of our actions, the quality of our character and the breadth of our ambition. Our maladies are the scribes that write the restless and mutating genome of our self-identity. Flesh and Blood combines McGann's passion for genealogy with an academic interest in the social dimensions of medicine - and fuses these with a lifelong exploration of drama as a way to understand what motivates human beings to do the things they do. He looks back at scenes from his own life that were moulded by medical malady, and traces the crooked roots of each affliction through the lives of his ancestors, whose grim maladies punctuate the public documents or military records of his family tree. In this way he asks a simple, searching question: how have these maladies helped to shape the story of the person he is today?
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    In the dying months of World War I, Spanish flu suddenly overwhelmed the world, killing between 50 and 100 million people.German soldiers termed it Blitzkatarrh, British soldiers called it Flanders Grippe, but globally the pandemic gained the notorious title of 'Spanish Flu'.Nowhere escaped this common enemy: in Britain, 250,000 people died, in the United States it was 750,000, five times its total military fatalities in the war, while European deaths reached over two million. The numbers are staggering. And yet at the time, news of the danger was suppressed for fear of impacting war-time morale. Even today these figures are shocking to many - the war still hiding this terrifying menace in its shadow.And behind the numbers are human lives, stories of those who suffered and fought it - in the hospitals and laboratories. Catharine Arnold traces the course of the disease, its origins and progress, across the globe via these remarkable people. Some are well known to us, like British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, US President Woodrow Wilson, and writers Robert Graves and Vera Brittain, but many more are unknown. They are the doughboys from the US, gold miners in South Africa, schoolgirls in Great Britain and many others. Published 100 years after the most devastating pandemic in world history, Pandemic 1918 uses previously unpublished records, memoirs, diaries and government publications to uncover the human story of 1918.
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    In 9th century England Bishop Alfeah the Bald is dabbling with magic. By collecting folk remedies from pagan women he risks his reputation. Yet posterity has been kind, as from the pages of Bald's book a remedy has been found that cures the superbug MRSA where modern antibiotics have failed. Within a few months of this discovery a whole new area of medical research called Ancientbiotics has been created to discover further applications for these remedies. Yet, what will science make of the elves, hags and nightwalkers which also stalk the pages of Bald's book and its companion piece Lacnunga, urging prescriptions of a very different, unsettling nature. Cures for the 'moon mad' and hysteria are interspersed with directives to drink sheep's dung and jump across dead men's graves. 'Old English Medical Remedies' explores the herbal efficacy of these ancient remedies whilst evaluating the supernatural, magical elements and suggests these provide a powerful psychological narrative revealing an approach to healthcare far more sophisticated than hitherto believed. All the while, the voices of the wise women who created and used these remedies are brought to life, after centuries of demonisation by the Church.
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    The Atlas of Disease gives a unique perspective on how epidemics have spread throughout history, from the fourteenth-century plague that devastated Europe and the lethal outbreaks of cholera in the nineteenth century, right up to the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s and the catastrophic spread of zika in Brazil. Interweaving new maps based on the latest available data with historical charts alongside intriguing, often unsettling, contemporary illustrations, this extraordinary book plots the course of some of the most virulent and deadly pandemics around the world. Discover how diseases have changed the course of history, stimulated advances in medicine and how mapping has played a key role in prevention and cure, shaping countless lives.
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    Heavy Years, a book about work and its workings, is a stand-alone sequel to the widely celebrated Light Years. A literary memoir whose satirical edge cuts deep into the chaotic hierarchy of the late twentieth-century NHS, it exists on the frontier of fiction and reality and often through the prism of Young's inimitable philosophic musings. Augustus Young, a freelance researcher turned `Trojan horse' for the wily and eccentric senior consultant Mal Combes, has an idea; simply put, public health should be the foundation upon which politics is built, rather than a means of electioneering. But as he attempts to make his mark on the Kafkaesque inner workings of the NHS, he finds himself increasingly part of the establishment he once set out to challenge.
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    Seamus O'Mahony skewers the delusions that make modern medicine so overweening and so insecure. He writes about the illusion of progress, the notion that more and more diseases can be 'conquered' ad infinitum. He punctures the fallacy of consumerism, the idea that healthcare can be endlessly adapted to the wishes of individuals as if they were customers in a supermarket. He excoriates the claims of Big Science, the spending of vast sums on research follies like the Human Genome Project that promise to isolate a gene and a cure for every ailment. O'Mahony insists that Freud created a climate where we all see ourselves as needing therapy, and the world as a vast clinic where non-medical difficulties deserve to be treated. One of the most dangerous fallacies is our over-reliance on metrics and our neglect of things that can't easily be measured, like compassion. And medicine also suffers from the illusion that empathy can be taught, that doctors can feel what their patients are feeling. This is, the author writes, self serving and deluded.
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    Witch' is a powerful word with humble origins. Once used to describe an ancient British tribe known for its unique class of female physicians and priestesses, it grew into something grotesque, diabolical and dangerous. A History of Women in Medicine: From Physicians to Witches? reveals the untold story of forgotten female physicians, their lives, practices and subsequent demonisation as witches. Originally held in high esteem in their communities, these women used herbs and ancient psychological processes to relieve the suffering of their patients. Often travelling long distances, moving from village to village, their medical and spiritual knowledge blended the boundaries between physician and priest. These ancient healers were the antithesis of the witch figure of today; instead they were knowledgeable therapists commanding respect, gratitude and high social status. In this pioneering work, Sinead Spearing draws on current archeological evidence, literature, folklore, case studies and original religious documentation to bring to life these forgotten healers. By doing so she exposes the elaborate conspiracy conceived by the Church to corrupt them in the eyes of the world. Turning these women from benevolent therapists into the embodiment of evil required a fabricated theology to ensure those who collected medicinal herbs or practiced healing, would be viewed by society as dealing with the devil. From this diabolical association, female healers could then be labeled witches and be justly tortured and tried in the ensuing hysteria known today as the European witch craze.
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    No one will ever again die from smallpox. With the battle against that 'most terrible of the ministers of death' won, an unprecedented humanitarian coalition has now turned its attention to polio, malaria and measles. While recent outbreaks of Ebola and Zika might suggest that the idea of an end to epidemic disease is nothing more than a pipe-dream, this brave new world may actually be a future within our grasp. In The Health of Nations Karen Bartlett provides a dramatic account of the history of eradication and takes us to the front line of modern campaigns. Through the eyes of those working in the field, we see innovations and unique collaborations across cultural divides; we witness the perseverance and resilience of the quest to vaccinate every child in spite of war and strife. Taking us from the high-tech labs of the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta to the villages of Nigeria and the remotest areas of the Middle East, The Health of Nations is both urgent and riveting, revealing what we've achieved and how we might yet win the battles to come.
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    As our approach to mental illness has oscillated from biological to psychoanalytical and back again, so have our treatments. With the rise of psychopharmacology, an ever-increasing number of people throughout the globe are taking a psychotropic drug, yet nearly seventy years after doctors first began prescribing them, we still don't really know exactly how or why they work - or don't work - on what ails our brains. In The Drugs that Changed Our Minds, Lauren Slater offers an explosive account not just of the science but of the people - inventors, detractors and consumers - behind our narcotics, from the earliest, Thorazine and Lithium, up through Prozac, Ecstasy, 'magic mushrooms', the most cutting-edge memory drugs and neural implants. In so doing, she narrates the history of psychiatry itself and illuminates the signature its colorful little capsules have left on millions of brains worldwide, and how these wonder drugs may heal us or hurt us.
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    Over the past 50 years, rates of chronic illness, learning disabilities, and allergies in children have exploded 1 in 6 children has a diagnosed learning disorder, 1 in 50 has autism, and 1 in 13 has severe food allergies. Instead of blaming genetics or increased awareness and diagnosis, author Thomas Cowan, MD, attributes these rising numbers to our current vaccination policy. In Vaccines, Auto-Immunity, and the Changing Nature of Childhood Illness, Cowan combines his years of experience as a medical practitioner with his research into the history and science of vaccines to show how childhood illnesses, which help children to develop a robust immune system, are now eschewed by conventional medicine in favor of an increasing array of vaccinations that do more harm than good. Invoking philosopher Rudolph Steiner s vision of vaccines as inspired by spirits of darkness, Cowan brings to light the various ways in which scientists and government officials work to promote a vaccine program that only increases suffering. Along the way he questions commonly held views of cell biology, the role of water in the body, and the spatial and spiritual components of autism. Additionally, he provides hope of recovery in the form of a nontoxic course of treatment for those suffering chronic inflammation and other averse immune responses to vaccines. Cowan s thoughtfully bold writing takes us on a journey into the history of illness, questioning the true origins of diseases such as polio, and asking important questions, such as: why did paralytic polio make a sudden appearance in the US in the years between 1916-1918? The answers lie far beyond what conventional medicine would have us believe. Vaccines, Auto-Immunity, and the Changing Nature of Childhood Illness asks that we re-examine not only our modern health system but our relationship with the spiritual world. Only then will we find true health.
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    Tuberculosis is an ancient disease, but it's not a disease of history. With more than a million victims every year - more than any other disease, including malaria - and antibiotic resistance now found in every country worldwide, tuberculosis is once again proving itself to be one of the smartest killers humanity has ever faced. But it's hardly surprising considering how long it's had to hone its skills. Forty-thousand years ago, our ancestors set off from the cradle of civilisation on their journey towards populating the planet. Tuberculosis hitched a lift and came with us, and it's been there ever since; waiting, watching, and learning. The organism responsible, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has had plenty of time to adapt to its chosen habitat - human lungs - and has learnt through natural selection to be an almost perfect pathogen. Using our own immune cells as a Trojan Horse to aid its spread, it's come up with clever ways to avoid being killed by antibiotics. But patience has been its biggest lesson - it can enter into a latent state when times are tough, only to come back to life when a host's immune system is compromised. Today, more than one million people die of the disease every year and around one-third of the world's population are believed to be infected. That's more than two billion people. Throw in the compounding problems of drug resistance, the HIV epidemic and poverty, and it's clear that tuberculosis remains one of the most serious problems in world medicine. Catching Breath follows the history of TB through the ages, from its time as an infection of hunter-gatherers to the first human villages, which set it up with everything it needed to become the monstrous disease it is today, through to the perils of industrialisation and urbanisation. It goes on to look at the latest research in fighting the disease, with stories of modern scientific research, interviews with doctors on the TB frontline, and the personal experiences of those affected by the disease.
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    Nearly all of us will, at some point, know someone who was born with a heart defect. But, as the surgical scars so often remain hidden, we just might not realise it.; Powerfully telling of the patients and their experiences, Open Hearts is a remarkable medical story: we are often so focused on 'extraordinary' people and their achievements, we forget just how incredible the 'ordinary' achievements of living can be.; Until the 1960s 'blue babies' were a striking sight in our streets. Suffering from congenital heart disease offered a bleak outlook to young patients and a heartbreaking experience for parents. Very few would make it to adulthood; now, in the West at least, most have a much higher chance of survival.; In Open Hearts Kate Bull, formerly a cardiologist at Great Ormond Street Hospital, tells not just of the development of heart surgery in children, but of the patients, past and present, whose lives have been transformed. Besides the technology, the sociology of medicine has changed substantially since the 1950s - think of the atmosphere of children's wards.Other things have barely changed - consider the dread of kissing your child goodbye at the door of an operating theatre in any era. ; Children's heart surgery is often seen as a medical triumph; but, for all the successful operations completed, thousands of pioneering patients have gone before, perhaps facing their own uncertain futures. Today, we place great hope in the power of science. Many lives have been saved; but, sometimes, we ask medicine to do more than it can.; By turns frightening, heart-wrenching and inspiring, Open Hearts is a powerful story of medical progress, hope and survival.
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    Nursing has always been a challenging but rewarding profession. As part of the core healthcare team, nurses take responsibility for the care they provide to patients, displaying both compassion and discipline in their daily work. Demanding professions require rigorous training, and nursing is no exception. As the real story to `Call the Midwife', Nursing Through the Years is a unique book that spans eight decades to reveal the fascinating lives of nurses who trained and worked at The Royal London Hospital, serving the community of the East End of London. Having interviewed over 85 nurses, whose experiences span from the 1940s to the 2000s, this important account captures the memories of their time at The Royal London. Exploring each decade, the extent to which nursing has developed and changed, and the highs and lows of training to be a nurse in a renowned teaching hospital are recalled in detail. It is a treasure chest of recollections which are informative, entertaining, inspiring, enlightening and also controversial, often challenging the myths and misconceptions that continue to surround nursing today.
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    The Sick Rose is a beautifully gruesome and strangely fascinating visual tour through disease in an age before colour photography. This stunning volume, combining detailed illustrations of afflicted patients from some of the worlds rarest medical books, forms an unforgettable and profoundly human reminder of mankinds struggle with disease. Incorporating historic maps, pioneering charts and contemporary case notes, Richard Barnetts evocative overview reveals the fears and obsessions of an era gripped by epidemics.
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    Medicine tells the fascinating history of medicine through the ages to the present day. Follow the greatest stories of medicine and its breakthroughs, with incredible coverage of disease, drugs, treatment, and cures. Medicine covers the gory pitfalls and miraculous breakthroughs of medical history from trepanning, bloodletting, and body snatching to brand new developments in IVF and gene therapy with compelling stories and stunning illustrations. Clear diagrams explain major diseases such as cancer, and trace the progression of medical treatment through the centuries, from ancient healers and herbalists to scurvy and smallpox, and the World Wars to modern psychiatry. Perfect for adults and students alike, and anyone interested in the fascinating medical history of the world, Medicine is the definitive visual history of our health.
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    For 150 years, Down's Syndrome has constituted the archetypal mental disability, easily recognisable by distinct facial anomalies and physical stigmata. In a narrow medical sense, Down's syndrome is a common disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome. It is named after John Langdon Down, the British asylum medical superintendent who described the syndrome as Mongolism in a series of lectures in 1866. In 1959, the disorder was identified as a chromosome 21 trisomy by the French paediatrician and geneticist Jerome Lejeune and has since been known as Down's Syndrome (in the English-speaking world) or Trisomy 21 (in many European countries). But children and adults born with this chromosomal abnormality have an important collective history beyond their evident importance to the history of medical science. David Wright, a Professor in the History of Medicine at McMaster University, looks at the care and treatment of Down's sufferers - described for much of history as 'idiots', - from Medieval Europe to the present day. The discovery of the genetic basis of the condition and the profound changes in attitudes, care, and early identification of Down's in the genetic era, reflects the fascinating medical and social history of the disorder.
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    Schizophrenics in the United States currently fare worse than patients in the world's poorest countries. In Mad in America , medical journalist Robert Whitaker argues that modern treatments for the severely mentally ill are just old medicine in new bottles, and that we as a society are deeply deluded about their efficacy. The widespread use of lobotomies in the 1920s and 1930s gave way in the 1950s to electroshock and a wave of new drugs. In what is perhaps Whitaker's most damning revelation, Mad in America examines how drug companies in the 1980s and 1990s skewed their studies to prove that new antipsychotic drugs were more effective than the old, while keeping patients in the dark about dangerous side effects. A haunting, deeply compassionate book,now revised with a new introduction, Mad in America raises important questions about our obligations to the mad, the meaning of insanity," and what we value most about the human mind.